Website References

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  3. Dart RC, Hurlbut KM, Garcia R, Boren J. Validation of a severity score for the assessment of crotalid snakebite. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;27(3):321-326.
  4. Gold BS, Barish RA, Dart RC. North American snake envenomation: diagnosis, treatment, and management. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004;22(2):423-443.
  5. Chippaux JP, Lang J, Eddine SA, et al. Clinical safety of a polyvalent F(ab’)2 equine antivenom in 223 African snake envenomations: a field trial in Cameroon. VAO (Venin Afrique de l’Ouest) Investigators. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998;92(6):657-662.
  6. Seifert SA, Boyer LV. Recurrence phenomena after immunoglobulin therapy for snake envenomations: Part 1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of immunoglobulin antivenoms and related antibodies. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;37(2):189-195.
  7. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, Green JL, Rumack BH, Dart RC. 2010 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 28th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011;49(10):910-941.
  8. Dart RC, Borron SW, Caravati EM, et al. Expert consensus guidelines for stocking of antidotes in hospitals that provide emergency care. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(3):386-394.
  9. Dart RC, Seifert SA, Boyer LV, et al. A randomized multicenter trial of crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom for the treatment for crotaline snakebite in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(16):2030-2036.
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  11. Data on file. Conshohocken, PA; BTG International Inc. 2015.